Fidest – Agenzia giornalistica/press agency

Quotidiano di informazione – Anno 32 n° 279

Posts Tagged ‘ethics’

Ethical Issues in Patient Safety Research

Posted by fidest press agency su sabato, 27 luglio 2013

A new WHO publication, “Ethical Issues in Patient Safety Research”, recently published, reflects on the specific ethical questions that can arise in the conduct of patient safety research and improvement activities, and aims to provide clear guidance on how to interpret internationally accepted ethical principles in such contexts. The publication also includes patient safety and quality improvement activities, not always considered research, but which sometimes contain some ethical risks to patients or providers.In response to requests from research ethics committees (REC), patient safety researchers and interested professionals, this publication provides thirteen specific guidance points about the specific nature of ethical risks associated with patient safety activities and ways to minimize these. It also looks at the criteria for identifying minimal risks, breaches of confidentiality and offers suggestions for protecting it, together with privacy and anonymity. It also identifies other ethical situations where patients or providers may be affected by research and patient safety activities, providing guidance on the obligations that researchers have towards patients and research participants in such scenarios.While patient safety research and related improvement activities share features with many other types of research, questions are frequently raised about the type and extent of ethical oversight that may be warranted, in a context where members of research ethical committees are not always comfortable issuing advice, or where researchers and quality or safety practitioners are not always fully aware of how to minimize the risks associated with their activity, to best protect their recipients. This publication is a first attempt to provide some clear guidance in this area.

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Medically assisted reproduction

Posted by fidest press agency su sabato, 22 gennaio 2011

The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) has published today (Thursday) a position paper related to intrafamilial medically assisted reproduction (IMAR).This particular type of assisted reproduction can raise various ethical and controversial issues, due to the involvement of a family member as a third party.The ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law acknowledges the benefits that IMAR may bring to those choosing this approach and concludes that certain forms of IMAR are morally acceptable under certain conditions. The group advises to evaluate each request for IMAR individually, based on four ethical principles in health care: the respect for autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence and justice.

Potential risks may affect several parties, including the future child. These risks can arise from intrafamilial conflict if parents feel threatened in their parental role or if they have different views from the collaborators on how the child should be informed of its genetic origins. Especially in cases of intergenerational IMAR, there are concerns that the child may be confused about his role in the family. The possible pressure on the donor or surrogate to collaborate can also lead to psychological problems. Adequate information on possible risks should be given to all parties. This includes both combined and separate counseling of recipients and collaborators to assess the voluntariness of the donation and to reduce potential conflict situations.
Part of adequate genetic counseling and good clinical practice in such cases is to offer carrier screening for those disorders that are more prevalent in the particular ethnic group. Given that fertility specialists have a co-responsibility for the welfare of the child, it may be morally justified to offer such genetic testing as a condition for access to assisted reproduction.  The group concludes that in some situations IMAR is morally acceptable as long as counseling of recipients and collaborators is applied in order to reduce potential psychosocial and medical risks. First-degree intergenerational IMAR needs special scrutiny, also in view of the increased risk of undermining autonomous choice. First- and second degree consanguineous IMAR is at odds with the spirit of anti-consanguinity and anti-incest legislation in most countries and should not be offered. The group encourages more research into the psychosocial implications of IMAR to contribute to adequate and moral guidance. The paper is published online on 20 January 2011 in the journal Human Reproduction: doi:10.1093/humrep/deq383. The full paper is available on request.

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Culture Nature green ethics

Posted by fidest press agency su sabato, 31 luglio 2010

Venezia Inaugurazione mostra giovedì 26 agosto, ore 17.30 (27 agosto – 21 novembre 2010) SPAZIO THETIS, Arsenale Novissimo Culture Nature green ethics – habitat – environment, a cura di Alessandra Coppa e Fortunato D’Amico. E’ l’importante evento collaterale nell’ambito della 12. Mostra Internazionale di Architettura della Biennale di Venezia.  Organizzatore e promotore di questa grande iniziativa è il Politecnico di Torino. Accompagna la mostra un esaustivo catalogo edito da Skira. (culture)

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Caritas calls on G20 to put ethics back into economy

Posted by fidest press agency su sabato, 28 marzo 2009

Caritas is calling on a G20 meeting in London on 2 April to put the poor at the heart of a reform package that will build a new low-carbon economy, based on justice and equality. The G20 is a group of developed and emerging economies. They will seek coordinated policies to counter the global recession. The G20 will also discuss the reform of the international financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.Caritas says the economic crisis will impact on poor people the most. At least 53 million people will be driven into poverty in developing countries as a result. This is on top of the 135 – 150 million people driven into poverty by the increases in food and fuel prices last year. Caritas Internationalis President Cardinal Oscar Rodriguez Maradiaga said, “The global economic crisis happened because ethics were marginalised in the pursuit of greater wealth by the powerful few. We can meet this crisis by patching up the failed globalisation of greed or see it as an opportunity to create a globalisation based on solidarity, justice and peace. “The poor – those least responsible for the economic crisis – will have the greatest difficulty coping with its impact. When trillions of dollars were found to rescue the banking system, it is morally unjustifiable that some rich countries have cut aid budgets. The economic crisis must not sidetrack rich countries from their obligations on aid to developing countries. “The crisis can’t deflect the G20 from agreeing a fair and adequate global deal on climate change at Copenhagen later this year. Unless greenhouse gas emissions are dramatically cut, climate change will have much more devastating long term consequences than the economic downturn – we can bail out banks but our climate can’t be bailed out.”  Caritas is calling for reform of the UN, IMF and the World Bank to ensure greater participation of poor countries in decision making. Caritas is calling on the G20 to strongly support the UN high-level conference on the crisis impact on development that will take place on 1-4 June.  Financial resources for development are needed more than ever. Caritas wants donor countries to deliver on long-standing promises to dedicate 0.7% of their Gross National Income (GNI) for international aid. Caritas wants policies to create just trade, debt relief and measures to mobilize domestic financial resources in developing countries.Caritas is calling for a new international participative system for wealth redistribution set up through the creation of international taxes to fund global public goods and the implementation of adequate fiscal policies at national level.  Tax evasion and illicit capital flows cost every year between $350 and $500 billion to the poor countries. The G-20 must commit to sanctions against tax havens and their users, support the adoption of the code of conduct for cooperation in the fight against capital flight and tax evasion, and call for the upgrading the UN Tax Committee to an intergovernmental body. Caritas also wants greater transparency of the payments and taxes paid by companies to governments through reforming international accounting standards, requiring companies to publish this information on a country by country basis. This is necessary for creating a more positive impact on poor communities and their local environment.

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