Fidest – Agenzia giornalistica/press agency

Quotidiano di informazione – Anno 33 n° 338

Posts Tagged ‘level’

EU-UK future relations: “level playing field” crucial to ensure fair competition

Posted by fidest press agency su venerdì, 14 febbraio 2020

On Wednesday, the European Parliament adopted a resolution providing MEPs’ initial input to the upcoming negotiations with the British government on a new EU-UK partnership after the Brexit transition period. The text was adopted by 543 votes to 39, with 69 abstentions.Parliament wants the association agreement with the UK to be as deep as possible, based on three main pillars: an economic partnership, a foreign affairs partnership and specific sectoral issues. However, a non-EU country cannot enjoy the same rights as a member state and the integrity of the Single Market and the Customs Union must be preserved at all times say MEPs.
To reach a new ambitious free trade agreement, MEPs broadly agree with the lines along which the Commission has proposed to negotiate. Given the size of the UK’s economy and its proximity, future competition with the EU must be kept open and fair through a “level playing field”, which means guarantees for equal rules on, among other things, social, environmental, tax, state aid, consumer protection and climate matters.To maintain quota-free, tariff-free trade relations, the British government should pledge to update its rules on, for instance, competition, labour standards and environmental protection, in order to ensure “dynamic alignment” of EU-UK laws, say MEPs.The resolution also makes clear that to gain Parliament’s consent, any EU-UK free trade deal must be conditional on a prior agreement on fisheries by June 2020. If the UK does not comply with EU laws and standards, the Commission should “evaluate possible quotas and tariffs for the most sensitive sectors as well as the need for safeguard clauses to protect the integrity of the EU single market.” This is particularly important for food and agricultural imports, which have to strictly comply with EU rules.
The text also contains chapters on citizens’ rights and mobility of persons, data protection, the future of financial services, the situation on the island of Ireland, the role of the European Court of Justice in settling disputes, EU programmes and agencies, foreign policy and security matters, as well as other European Parliament priorities, and will be available in full here.Parliament also supports the fact that Gibraltar will not be included in the scope of the agreements to be concluded, and that any separate agreement will require the Spanish government’s prior approval.
The resolution is based on the European Commission’s draft negotiating directives, which were presented by EU Chief Negotiator Michel Barnier on Monday 3 February. These directives are the frame that sets out the purpose, scope and objectives for the talks. They also need to be signed off by EU27 member states’ representatives in the Council, which is expected to happen on 25 February.

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Just 15 years of post-Paris emissions to lock in 20 cm of sea level rise in 2300

Posted by fidest press agency su lunedì, 4 novembre 2019

Berlin – Unless governments significantly scale up their emission reduction efforts, the 15 years’ worth of emissions released under their current Paris Agreement pledges alone would cause 20 cm of sea-level rise over the longer term, according to new research published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS).The study, led by researchers at Climate Analytics and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), estimates how much long-term sea level rise will be locked in by 2300 due to past and near-term anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions up to 2030.The report is the first to quantify the sea-level rise contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that countries would release if they met their current Paris Agreement pledges (‘Nationally Determined Contributions’ or NDCs). The pledges, made after first adopting the Paris Agreement in 2015, expire in 2030. The researchers found that emissions released during those 15 years alone would cause sea levels to rise by 20 cm by 2300, one-fifth of the total committed sea-level rise caused by the emissions released from the start of industrialisation up to 2030. The potential impact of an already irreversible melting of parts of the Antarctic ice sheet was not taken into account.“Our results show that what we do today will have a huge effect in 2300. 20 cm is very significant; it is basically as much sea-level rise as we’ve observed over the entire 20th century. To cause that with only 15 years of emissions is quite staggering,” said Climate Analytics’ Alexander Nauels, lead author of the study.“The true consequences of our emissions on sea-level rise unfold over centuries, due to the slow pace at which the ocean, polar ice sheets and glaciers respond to global warming. The more carbon we release now the more sea-level rise we are locking in for the future,” Nauels said.The researchers also found that just over half of the 20 cm contribution can be attributed to the top five polluters – China, USA, EU, India, and Russia. The emissions released by these five countries under their current Paris Agreement pledges (NDCs) will cause seas to rise by 12 cm by 2300, the study shows.“Just five economies are responsible for more than half of the projected sea-level rise caused by emissions released in the 15 years following the Paris Agreement. In order to limit long-term sea-level rise, it is crucial that these countries step up their emission reduction efforts,” said Johannes Gütschow, from PIK, another author of the studyWhen accounting for all the emissions released between 1991, the year after the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its first scientific assessment of climate change, and 2030, the long-term sea-level rise commitment of the five biggest emitters increases to 26 cm.“The implications of our findings are clear. Emissions today will inevitably cause seas to rise a long way into the future. This process cannot be reversed. It is our legacy for humankind,” said Climate Analytics’ Carl-Friedrich Schleussner, who also contributed to the study.“Governments urgently need to put forward much stronger emission reduction pledges, or NDCs, by 2020 in order to decarbonise at a pace in line with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C temperature goal and avoid further burdening future generations,” Schleussner said.As seas rise, extreme sea-level events will happen more often and increase flood risks. The recent IPCC Special Report on Oceans and Cryosphere states that extreme sea-level events currently seen only once in a hundred years will occur annually in many parts of the world by 2050 due to the projected sea-level rise of 24-32 cm. This will have potentially devastating impacts for many coastal and island communities.

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IKEA Switzerland is the First Company

Posted by fidest press agency su giovedì, 1 ottobre 2015

ikeaThe vision of IKEA is to create a better everyday life for the many people, which includes the IKEA co-workers around the world. For years IKEA Switzerland has been committed to establishing gender equality amongst its 3000 co-workers. “With the EDGE certification we have the opportunity to verify whether our ambition to treat men and women equally at IKEA is a living reality,” says Simona Scarpaleggia, CEO of IKEA Switzerland. “By reaching the highest level of certification, we are tightening IKEA’s company structure and culture to prevent pay gaps, underrepresentation of women in management positions and different career paths for women,” Scarpaleggia continues. More than 100 companies from 31 different countries have been certified or are in the process of becoming certified by EDGE for the first or second level so far.The EDGE assessment included company statistics, interviews with more than 1000 employees and in-depth interviews with IKEA Switzerland’s HR professionals. The analysis of salaries has shown that IKEA has a statistically insignificant unexplained gender pay gap.
“IKEA Switzerland is the success story of gender-enlightened, sustainable business,” says Aniela Unguresan, co-founder of EDGE Certified Foundation.

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Why The Bankers’ Bonus Cap Should Be Ignored

Posted by fidest press agency su lunedì, 20 ottobre 2014

banca europeaThe European Banking Authority’s (EBA) insistence that a bonus cap should be applied to bankers pay remains advisory and is, in any case, made on the basis of a decision that was beyond the EU’s powers.Speaking at a financial sector forum this weekend the Secretary-General of the Federation of International Employers (FedEE), Robin Chater, repeated his long- standing challenge to the imposition of a cap on bankers’ bonus payments (
” The fact that the EBA has not produced its final guidelines on the bonus cap has not prevented them from trying to apply pressure on banks and the Bank of England’s Prudential Regulation Authority to introduce an effective cap now. Unfortunately, many banks are not fully standing up to the EBA and are instead seeking to maintain “role-based allowances” for senior personnel.What I do not understand is why the banks do not directly challenge the EU’s powers to regulate pay? Past laxity by member states has allowed several EU Directives to contain remuneration-related elements that are not connected with “equal pay” – the only valid grounds under the EU treaty for such measures to be introduced at an EU level. Thus measures governing job posting and temporary agency workers both contain unjustifiable pay clauses.If the founding fathers of the European Union had wished to extend the its powers to cover remuneration then it would have been clearly specified within the EU treaty. As it stands – article 153 (5) of the Lisbon Treaty states that EU powers do not extend to pay, the right of association, the right to strike or the right to impose lock-outs.Whatever popular support there may be for curbing pay levels in the financial sector there are no clear grounds for imposing a EU-wide cap on any form of remuneration. I suspect that support for the bonus cap from some member states was just a back-door attempt to undermine the UK’s dominance in financial markets. What legislators do not fully appreciate – largely because they are naïve and unqualified to do so – is that a significant reduction in bankers’ pay will only increase the risk that financial institutions will be under greater threat from fraud and corruption. Why the City of London is so strong is largely because it operates with a high level of integrity, as its top people are sufficiently well paid not to undermine the system for personal gain. “

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Annual Report in the Justice

Posted by fidest press agency su martedì, 3 giugno 2014

justiceThe EU Agency for Fundamental Rights is presenting its 2013 Annual Report in the Justice and Home Affairs Council on 5/6 June in Luxembourg. FRA’s Annual report underlines the need for the EU and its Member States to reaffirm and strengthen their joint commitment towards protecting and promoting fundamental rights. It suggests the creation of an internal fundamental rights strategy and an annual policy cycle to better link up and to regularly assess fundamental rights efforts at EU and national levels. As in previous years, FRA has mapped out the fundamental rights challenges and achievements that took place over the course of 2013 in its Annual report. In addition, the report contains promising practices on how to ensure that fundamental rights are better respected, protected and fulfilled across the EU.Some of the key concerns identified in 2013 include:
•General feelings of fear and high levels of under-reporting among victims, particularly hate crime victims, as also revealed by FRA surveys on violence and discrimination towards lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, on violence against women, and on antisemitism.
•The urgent need for EU-wide action to safeguard the lives and rights of migrants, as underlined by the tragic events off the Italian coast of Lampedusa.
The weakness of oversight structures in the context of large-scale surveillance programmes as revealed in 2013 and, in the context of data protection violations at national level, an apparent weaknesses in the authorities responsible for data protection.

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Team Culture 2012: “Europe’s financial crisis is also cultural”

Posted by fidest press agency su giovedì, 1 marzo 2012

Copenhagen On Monday and Tuesday, the Danish Minister for Culture, Mr Uffe Elbæk, convened 13 European notables in Copenhagen to investigate the way in which culture and art can play a decisive role for Europe in the midst of the financial crisis. All agree that the challenges of the current crisis are global and that Europe has a responsibility to lead the way.The Danish Minister for Culture, Mr Uffe Elbæk, says: “It has been tremendously exciting to experience how—despite the vastly different geographic and professional backgrounds of the group members—all have been convinced that art and culture both can and ought to contribute to finding solutions to the massive societal challenges facing Europe.” Mr Moukhtar Kocache, art historian and former programme manager at Ford Foundation (France/Lebanon), states: ”The question is how we can raise awareness and revalue European cultural capital? And what responsibility do we in the cultural sector have in retaining and securing our value systems? I hope we will be able to initiate a debate about these issues.”Until June, the group will seek out answers to how art and culture can contribute to solving these challenges. Firstly, each group member will find a concrete European example of how culture can contribute to a solution of one or more of the challenges. Secondly, the group will jointly draw up a manifesto with recommendations for the general public and politicians of Europe. Both will be presented in Brussels to EU’s ministers for culture, members of the European Parliament’s Committee on Cultural Affairs and representatives of the European public.Ms Josephine Green, Beyond 20:21st Century Store (Great Britain/Netherlands-Italy), adds:
”Culture can not be seen isolated from the larger political picture. I hope that we through this project can shed a light on the many social and cultural innovative projects that take place under the radar and could serve as an inspiration at a political level.” “Our talks with the group today show in all plainness that it is the diversity of the European voices and cultures that are capable of jointly shedding light on the burning social and political platforms for Europe. I am therefore very excited to see which concrete projects and answers the group will arrive at and present in Brussels in June,” says Mr. Uffe Elbæk.

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Church Reform Processes

Posted by fidest press agency su mercoledì, 24 novembre 2010

“Free for the Future – Protestant Churches in Europe” is the theme for the coming 7th General Assembly of CPCE, the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe, from 20th to 26th September 2012 in Florence. The meeting of the highest decision-making body of the 105 member churches in more than 30 countries will have processes of church reform as its main material theme, decided the Council of CPCE yesterday during its meeting in Vienna. “What varying experiences with the social changes in their home countries can our churches bring in? What are the shared theological and practical contributions of the protestant churches to a changing Europe? The discussions of the General Assembly should issue in a call to the churches on the way to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation in 2017”, said CPCE President Thomas Wipf. For the first time CPCE will conduct an international stewarding programme for twenty students up to 27 years of age. The stewards will be used in the conference office, in the working groups and in publicity as well as in the services and meditations. “The emphasis in the accompanying framework programme lies on training up the next ecumenical generation on the European level”, stressed CPCE General Secretary Michael Bünker: “We wish to motivate young adults for work in CPCE.” CPCE will approach its member churches to delegate suitable stewards. The Council extended the call of Dr. Peter Bukowski as Liturgical Consultant and Dr. Joachim Christoph as Legal Advisor until the coming CPCE General Assembly in September 2012 in Florence. Bukowski is Moderator of the Reformed Alliance in Germany and a member of the Council of CPCE. Christoph is a retired Vice-President of the United Evangelical Lutheran Church in Germany.
Prof. Hans-Peter Grosshans of the University of Münster was called to be a new member of the Expert Group on Ecumenism till the coming General Assembly in 2012. This expert group observes and accompanies the inter-confessional relations of CPCE and is intended to clarify and deepen its theological model. Prof. Parush Parushev of the International Baptist Seminary in Prague was called as a new member of the Expert Group on Ethics until the General Assembly. This body advises CPCE on current issues in politics and society and is meant to extend the presence of the protestant churches on the European level.

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“Porte aperte” alla Leonardo da Vinci academy

Posted by fidest press agency su venerdì, 19 novembre 2010

Etobicoke (Canada) 25 Novembre 2010, dalle 9 alle 11:30 e dalle 12:30 alle 15, Leonardo Da Vinci Academy, 100 Allanhurst Drive, M9A 4K4 la  Scuola sarà aperta a chi desidera visitarla.  La nostra iniziativa “porte aperte” è indirizzata a famiglie che possono essere interessate a conoscere, a incontrare gli insegnanti e a visitare la Scuola.  La Leonardo Da Vinci Academy è stata fondata 25 anni fa.  L’obiettivo principale della Scuola è di offrire un curriculum arricchito che tiene conto di sviluppare tutti gli aspetti inerenti all’acquisizione di una buona cultura, incluso l’essere indipendenti, il senso di responsabilita` e la crescita intelletuale.  Offriamo un programma Montessori in italiano e uno in inglese per bambini dai 3 ai 6 anni; il livello elementare va dalla prima alla quinta e dalla prima fino alla terza media.  Il programma della prima, seconda e terza elementare è basato sulla filosofia Montessoriana.  Tutti gli studenti della Leonardo Da Vinci studiano Italiano e Francese quotidianamente.  La scuola è l’unica in Canada ad aver ottenuto un riconoscimento ufficiale dal Governo Italiano.  Questo riconoscimento significa che la nostra scuola è parificata alle scuole italiane.
On Thursday November 25, 2010, guests are invited to visit between the hours of 9am – 11:30am or between 12:30pm-3pm.  The school will be open to guests and prospective families to drop in and visit our classes and meet with staff.  If you are interested in discovering a school with an enriched well rounded curriculum and teachers who nurture responsibility, independence, and intellectual growth, then come and visit LDVA.  The Leonardo Da Vinci Academy offers Casa Montessori programs for children between 3 and 6 years old.  One of the programs is in English and the other is Italian Full-Immersion for the same age group.  The elementary programs offered are from Grade 1 to Grade 8.  The Lower Elementary program, Grade 1 through 3, is based on the Montessori philosophy. All Leonardo Da Vinci students study Italian and French daily.  Our school is the first and only in Canada to be officially recognized by the Italian Government, which means that our students could transfer to schools in Italy at their grade level.

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Book: La malapianta

Posted by fidest press agency su venerdì, 17 settembre 2010

Toronto (Canada) September 27, 2010 – 6:30pm  Northrop Frye Hall 003 Victoria College, University of Toronto 73 Queen’s Park   Free admission.   Opening introduction by Prof. Marcel Danesi, Dept. of Anthropology, UofT. Copies of the book are available for sale. o not miss the chance to meet Canadian writer Antonio Nicaso and Italian Judge Nicola Gratteri  (Procuratore Aggiunto della Repubblica presso il Tribunale di Reggio Calabria), wo renowned  experts on ‘Ndrangheta.  Their book about the ’Ndrangheta, one of the most pervasive and powerful criminal  organization at the intenational level, has been a best seller in Italy for the past year. The event will also be presented in Italian  by the Columbus Centre with the support of the Istituto Italiano di Cultura  Thursday September 30, 2010 – 7:00pm
Columbus Centre – Rotunda Hall   901 Lawrence West, North York  Free admission. Copies of the book are available for sale.

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New catastrophic financial collapse?

Posted by fidest press agency su giovedì, 15 aprile 2010

Is the world economy at risk of another, even more catastrophic financial collapse? How do so many investment bubbles form at once, across the world? Why are many markets that seemed to be disconnected now prone to collapse all at the same time? In The Fearful Rise of Markets, Authers addresses the idea of a developing “New Bubble,” and provides insights and solutions for the financial markets for 2010 and beyond.  Authers also illuminates the multiple roots of the repeated financial crises of the past two decades, including massive shifts in the global balance of economic power; the shift of key decisions from banks to capital markets funded with “other people’s money”; the wholesale financialization of key asset classes that were once closed to most investors; and massive failures of both academic theory and government policy.   John Authers provides both concerned readers and policymakers alike with answers on why financial market bubbles occur more frequently, why this could be happening again right now, and what to do about it.  Readers will find in The Fearful Rise of Markets:An exploration into the inner workings of today’s highly unstable, crisis-prone financial system with an eye to the future potential problems Prescriptions for reforming global finance – and sound advice for individual investors in the meantime A global view with comprehensive context: how we got here, and why we’re still at risk. Most importantly, in The Fearful Rise of Markets readers will gain the historic perspective of the current financial crisis on a global level that is needed if we are to work out how to prevent a future crisis.
John Authers, as investment editor for the Financial Times, served for several years as its main commentator on international markets. In this role, he became one of the world’s most influential financial journalists, with bylined columns on display pages of Financial Times five days a week, and he recently took over as the head of the Financial Times’ flagship Lex column.

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Rome inclusion

Posted by fidest press agency su sabato, 27 marzo 2010

Members call for a critical analysis on policy failures concerning Roma inclusion, seeing the “unsatisfactory progress” to date. Parliament has been calling for a Roma inclusion strategy since 2008, and policy commitments should emerge from the second Roma summit will take place on the 4th of April, Members say. In a resolution tabled by the seven political groups adopted by 572 votes in favour, 28 against and 23 abstentions, Members condemn the “recent rise of anti-Gypsyism in several EU Member States” and express their concern at the situation suffered by Roma in education, housing, employment, access to healthcare, and their low-level of political participation. They also express concern at the forced repatriation of Roma to countries in the Western Balkans where they might face homelessness and discrimination. They repeat their call for a European Strategy on the Roma, as expressed in a 2008 resolution, to which the Commission has so far not responded. New commissioners should prioritize Roma-related issues in their portfolios and a horizontal approach to be adopted. “A complex development programme” should be established, making intervention possible “in ghetto areas” struggling with serious structural disadvantages Members say. Antidiscrimination measures “are not sufficient” and the parties should be forced to honour their own pledges. The use made by pre-accession funding should be evaluated on the grounds of their social impact and local authorities should be encouraged to make a better use of structural funding opportunities, Members say.

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First step in a study project on Church Unity

Posted by fidest press agency su sabato, 27 febbraio 2010

A study project on Church unity was launched at a meeting hosted in Geneva by the Churches in Dialogue Commission (CiD) of the Conference of European Churches (CEC) on 22 February 2010. The four theologians who participated were: Prof. Dr. Paul M. Collins, University of Chichester, UK, Anglican; Prof. Dr. Myriam Wijlens, University of Erfurt, Germany, Catholic; Dr. Minna Hietamaki, from Helsinki, Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and Prof. Dr. Viorel Ionita, CiD, Orthodox.  The aim of the project is to investigate the understanding of the concept of “Church unity in relation to the concept of identity”. In order to achieve this aim the group will examine “Church unity” and “identity” at a theological-theoretical level and also at the level of lived experience; this will entail examining church practices.  The idea to launch this project came from the experiences of all four participants at the WCC Plenary Commission on Faith and Order, held last October in Crete. Through Prof. Collins, who is the coordinator of this group, the project is connected with the network on “Ecclesiological Investigations”. The main purpose of the meeting on the 22nd was to shape the whole project in terms of aims, working methodology, partners and timing. For that purpose each one of the four participants prepared a paper on unity from their respective theological traditions.  The project will last until September 2012 and will include presentations at the European level (CiD) as well as world wide levels (network on Ecclesiological Investigations and the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion). The final outcome will be a publication with all the findings in order to promote the search for the Church unity world wide. Viorel Ionita stated that, “the meeting on 22nd of February was very dynamic and constructive. The four theological traditions represented were presented in a complementary way and we hope that in the future other theological traditions could be included such as those from a free-church background. As CEC we were happy to facilitate this first meeting and I hope that this project will very well fit into the CiD work on Church unity as recommended by the 13th  CEC Assembly which was held in Lyon (July 2009)”.
The Conference of European Churches (CEC) is a fellowship of some 120 Orthodox, Protestant, Anglican and Old Catholic Churches from all countries of Europe, plus 40 associated organisations. CEC was founded in 1959. It has offices in Geneva, Brussels and Strasbourg.

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Climate Change

Posted by fidest press agency su mercoledì, 3 febbraio 2010

Amsterdam. Fifty five governments have submitted pledges to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to cut and limit their greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, as part of the Copenhagen Accord. In doing so, they have accepted the Accord’s objective of avoiding dangerous climate change by keeping global warming below 2 degrees C. Greenpeace calls on the 55 governments to take on tougher new emissions targets or face charges that they are ‘greenwashing’ their plans. Paragraph 2 of the Copenhagen Accord specifically states, “We agree that deep cuts in global emissions are required… with a view to reduce global emissions so as to hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius, and take action to meet this objective…” This level of warming is regarded as a critical threshold beyond which there may be irreversible large-scale impacts on the environment. Staying well below the warming threshold requires industrialised nations to cut their greenhouse gas emissions by 40% below 1990 levels by 2020 and provide substantial funding to developing countries which need to reduce their projected growth in emissions by 15-30% by the same date. Current targets by industrialised countries fall far short of this. Together they amount only to an 11-19% reduction in their overall emissions. The effect of proposed forestry credits mean effective cuts in emissions from fossil fuel use would be lower still. These commitments mean an average global temperature increase of more than 3 degrees C, compared to pre-industrial times.(2) As a new Greenpeace briefing highlights, the environmental and social implications could be catastrophic.(3) Greenpeace has compared pledges made by the 55 governments prior to or during the Copenhagen summit against those that had by yesterday been submitted to the UN.(4) The comparison shows a slight slackening of international effort to combat climate change.(5) This is due to Canada downgrading its already weak emissions reduction target to bring it into line with that of the United States.

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Climate change

Posted by fidest press agency su martedì, 19 gennaio 2010

Prague In what could be a landmark decision based on climate change arguments, the Czech Ministry of the Environment is expected to announce this week its final statement on an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for the proposed replacement and lifetime extension of the Prunerov II coal-fired power station. Coal-fired power plants are the largest point sources of carbon dioxide emissions and significant contributors to global warming and climate change. The Federated States of Micronesia, a nation of widely scattered islands located in the western Pacific some 12,000 km from the Czech Republic, has called for a negative statement on the assessment.The Pacific nation is among those most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, especially from sea level rise, changing weather patterns, and increased storms. In its submission to the Czech Ministry, the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) argued that the effect on climate change had not been assessed in the EIA for the proposed renewal of Prunerov II. Transboundary EIAs are common between neighbouring states but, as far as Greenpeace and the Czech Environmental Law Service are aware, this is the first time that a state significantly threatened by climate change and far removed from the source of emissions has used the transboundary process in an attempt to ensure its concerns are taken into consideration. Coming less than a month after the Copenhagen climate summit failed to agree a fair, ambitious and legally binding treaty to combat climate change, this unique request from FSM underlines that vulnerable developing nations are exploring new avenues to challenge decisions on projects that contribute to climate change. Greenpeace Czech Republic and the Czech Environmental Law Service are calling for Prunerov to be decommissioned by 2015.

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