Fidest – Agenzia giornalistica/press agency

Quotidiano di informazione – Anno 31 n°159

Posts Tagged ‘socioeconomic’

Various studies associate socioeconomic disadvantage and higher rates of cancer

Posted by fidest press agency su sabato, 16 giugno 2018

People with a more disadvantaged socioeconomic position in society are more likely to develop different types of cancer, according to the compilation of studies carried out by LIFEPATH, a project funded by the European Commission with the aim of investigating the biological pathways underlying social differences in healthy ageing.The purpose of this analysis is to summarise investigations on social-to-biological processes occurring over the life course with an emphasis on processes involved in social inequalities in cancer. LIFEPATH uses a multidisciplinary approach integrating information on the socioeconomic position, environmental exposures and risk factors with biological measurements. The latest findings illustrate the potential impact of the socioeconomic position upon many pathological processes, including cancer. The analysis carried out by LIFEPATH shows that inflammatory and immune system dysregulations and biological ageing are more commonly found in disadvantaged social backgrounds. Both are closely related to cancer. Despite this, social inequalities remain neglected as a public health imperative, not clearly identified as a risk factor in public policies as tobacco and sedentary lifestyle are. Overweight and obesity have been shown to have a social pattern from early childhood. In a large study carried out by Dr Cathal McCrory, from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), it was observed that parent and child body mass index (BMI) is linked to low socio-economic position from age three and remains so across the early childhood years. Thanks for the researches made by Dr Maria Kyrgiou (Imperial College of London) and summarized by IARC (Lauby-Secretan, International Agency for Research on Cancer), there is evidence thathigher BMI may produce a dysregulation in the cellular and molecular mediators of immunity and inflammation, both related to cancer. Another set of important social-to-biological mechanisms involving the immune system may be set up in childhood. A study by V. Garès and colleagues showed that children from more disadvantaged social backgrounds are more likely to be infected by a ubiquitous herpes virus called Epstein Barr virus (EBV). EBV is involved in certain types of cancers (including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder). “The main interest of this finding is that early acquisition of pathogens affects the maturation of the immune system and in turn affects its function either positively or negatively”, says Paolo Vineis, Professor at the Imperial College of London and leader of the LIFEPATH project.Among adults, a large multi-cohort study which investigated the relationship between socioeconomic adversity, risk factors and mortality, showed that social inequalities are associated with a 2.1-year reduction in life expectancy between ages 40 and 85 years. This was the strongest association with life expectancy, just after smoking (4,8 years), diabetes (3,9 years) and physical inactivity (2,4 years). Another analysis focused more specifically on how the educational attainment of individuals is related to an epigenetic mechanism, DNA methylation, used to represent overall biological ageing. Carried out by Giovanni Fiorito (Italian Institute for Genomic Medicine) it suggests that individuals with a lower level of education experience a higher rate of biological ageing than those with a high education level. The analyses controlled for a number of behavioural factors, but nevertheless accelerated ageing among the more socially disadvantaged remained present. Socioeconomic adversity may be associated with accelerated epigenetic ageing, implicating biomolecular mechanisms that link social circumstances to age-related diseases and longevity.

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Socioeconomic disadvantages reduce physical function in old age

Posted by fidest press agency su lunedì, 2 aprile 2018

Low socioeconomic position is linked to a deterioration in the quality of ageing equivalent to a loss of 4-7 years of good physical health by age 60. This is the conclusion of a study published in the BMJ by Lifepath, a project funded by the European Commission, which investigates the biological pathways underlying social differences in healthy ageing.Men aged 60 with lower economic status (e.g. working in manual occupations) had the same walking speed as men aged 66.6 with a higher economic status (e.g. working in non-manual occupations). Measured by walking speed, this is a 6.6-year loss of good physical function. Women lost 4.6 years, a smaller but still relevant decrease.This negative impact was comparable to that provoked by other major risk factors: by age 60, insufficient physical activity led to a loss of 5.7 years in the function of men and 5.4 in women, while the reduction due to obesity was 5.1 for men and 7.5 for women. The loss ascribed to diabetes was, respectively, 5.6 and 6.3. The effect of other risk factors such as hypertension (2.3 and 3 years of lost function) and tobacco use (3 and 0.7 years lost) was smaller.“Our study added further evidence to the role of poor social and economic circumstances as powerful risk factors, which may seriously impact on healthy ageing”, says Silvia Stringhini, researcher at Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland and lead author of the study. “Previous studies have shown that different risk factors, including socioeconomic disadvantage, tend to cluster in the same individuals. However, our results suggest that the association of low occupational profile with physical functioning is not attributable to other risk factors”. Lifepath researchers analysed data from 37 studies comprised of a total of 109,107 men and women aged between 45 and 90 years. The 24 countries involved were in Europe, the United States, Latin America, Africa, and Asia, including UK. They used walking speed as an indicator of physical function since it declines with age and is a good predictor of survival, hospital admission, and cognitive decline. To assess an individual’s socioeconomic condition, the information of their last known occupational title was collected during enrolment.
“Another relevant finding was the difference between high-income countries on the one hand, and low- and middle-income countries on the other, with the former showing higher number of years of functioning lost due to socioeconomic disadvantage”, says Paolo Vineis, professor at the Imperial College of London and leader of the Lifepath project. “This could be due to regional differences in the social patterning of major risk factors, such as physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes” Current global health policies are targeted towards established risk factors of health, such as smoking and physical inactivity. The negative impact of these factors is mainly assessed using hard parameters such as mortality, while broader measures of wellbeing like physical function has received less attention so far. “We should not limit our analysis to the length of our lives, but also to the quality of our ageing”, says Mika Kivimaki, professor at the University College of London. “By focusing on healthy ageing and functional wellbeing, we aim to provide further evidence for broader health policies dealing with socioeconomic adversity, in addition to standard risk factors”. Lifepath is an EU-funded project aimed to provide updated, relevant and innovative evidence for the relationship between social disparities and healthy ageing to lay ground for the development of future health policies and strategies. Lifepath experts develop an original study design that integrates social science approaches with biology and big data analysis, using existing population cohorts and omics measurements.

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